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Chapter 19 - 1 Working with Solutions  (pg. 600-603)
Right side

1. Solutions and suspensions
    A.  Suspension
        1.  Particles can be seen
        2.  Fig. 1 pg. 601
    B.  Solutions
        1.  Well-mixed
        2.  Fruit juice drinks
2. Solvents
    A.  Present in the largest amount
    B.  #1 solvent =water
3. Solute
    A.  Mixed into the solvent
4. Particles in solution
    A.  Why do solutes seem to disappear when you mix them with water?
    B.  Particles of the solute leave each other and become surrounded by particles of the solvent
    C.  Fig. 4, pg. 602
5. Concentration
    A.  Dilute solution
        1.  Too little amount of solute
        2.  Ex. Weak tea
    B.  Concentrated solution
        1.  More solute dissolved in water

Chapter 19 - 1 Solubility (pg. 604-605)
Right side
saturated solution
unsaturated solution
supersatuation solution

1. Solubility
    A.  How well does a substance dissolve?
    B.  Solubility is the measure of how well a substance dissolves
2. Saturated
    A.  The “just right” amount dissolved, no more can be added
3. Supersaturated
    A.  Way tooooo much solute is added
    B.  Can see the excess amount on the bottom of the container
    C.  Fig. 7, pg. 604 (rock candy)
4. Unsaturated
    A. still more room to add solute
5. Solubility
    A.  Factors that affect solubility  
        1.  Temperature
        2.  Type of solvent
    B.  Temperature
        1.  Warmer temperature dissolves solutes quicker
        2.  Gases become less soluble when temperature goes up


Left side
Sharpen your Skills (pg. 605)
Graph the data and answer the question.

Chapter 19 - 1 Effects of Solutes on Solutions (pg. 606-607)
Right side
   freezing point-
   boiling point-

1. Effects of solutes on solutions
    A.  Lower freezing point
        1.  Solutes lower the freezing point of a solvent
        2.  Can use this principle to make ice cream in 10-15 minutes!
    B.  Fig. 9, pg. 606
        1.  Water molecules can freeze quickly
        2.  Add salt to the water and the water molecules can’t make crystals as quickly so it lowers the freezing point to a different temperature

    C.  Higher boiling points
        1.  Solutes raise the boiling point of a solvent
        2.  More solute particles make it harder for the solvent to evaporate and escape, so more energy is needed to, which means a higher boiling point
        3.  Ex.  Fig. 10, pg. 607 

Left side

Chapter 19 - 2 Acids (pg. 610-613)
Right side

1.Properties of Acids
    A.  Tastes sour – contains an acid
        1.  Citrus fruits
        2.  Cherries, tomatoes, apples
        3.  Vinegar (salad dressing)
        4.  Tea
        5.  Sour milk
    B.  Reactions with metals and carbonates       
        1.  Acids react with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas
        2.  Fig. 13, pg. 611 – metal etching
        3. Acids also react with carbonates (CO3-2)
        4.  Demonstration of this: (pg. 612)
        2HCl  +  CaCO3    CaCl2   +   CO2  +  H2O
    C.  Reaction with Indicators
        1.  Indicators
            a.  Litmus (blue litmus paper turns red)
            b.  pH paper
            c.  Hydrangea flowers
            d.  Cabbage juice
        2.  Indicates the presence of an acid
2. Some important Acids
    A.  Common Acids


Left side
Uses of Acids  (pg. 613)
food -

body -

home -

industry -

Chapter 19-2   Bases (pg. 614-615)
Right side

1. Properties
    A.  Tastes bitter
        1.  Tonic water – try it!!!!
        2.  Soap and shampoo’s taste bitter –don’t try!
    B.  Slippery Feel
        1.  Soap is slippery when wet
        2.  Most bases are more harmful than acids, so don’t touch them
    C.  Reactions with indicators
        1.  Red litmus paper turn blue
    D.  Reactions of bases
        1.  Doesn’t react with metals or carbonates
2. Some Important Bases


Left side
Uses of Bases (pg. 614)
food -
home -
health -
industry -

Chapter 19 - 3 Acids and Bases in Solution
Right side
   pH scale-

1. Acids in solution
    A.  Acids form hydrogen ions (H+) in water
    B.  HCl H+   + Cl-
    C. Notice acid formula’s start with H
2. Bases in solution
    A.  Bases form hydroxide ions (OH-) in water
    B.  NaOH   Na+   +   OH-
    C.  Notice almost all bases end with hydroxide
3. Strength
    A.  Acids and bases may be strong or weak
    B.  Strong bases
        1.  Produce more hydroxide ions
    C.  Strong acids
        1.  Produce more hydrogen ions
4. Measuring pH
    A.  Measure the concentration of hydrogen ions
    B.  pH scale
        1.  Measures acids and bases in a range of 0 to 14
        2.  Fig. 20, pg. 619
        3.  When pH is low, concentration of hydrogen ions is high
    C.  Use pH paper to test solutions
    D.  7 – 14 = base
        1.  Higher the number the stronger the base
    E. 0 - 7 = acid
        1.  Lower the number the stronger the acid
5. Neutral
    A.  7 = neutral
    B.  Pure water is neutral
        1.  That is why you can add water to any solution and not change the acidity or basicity

Left Side

Chapter 19 - 4 Digestion and pH
Right side
Student created outline

Left side
Discover pg. 624
Answer Think it over -

Trace the digestion process (fig. 27, pg. 625)