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Chapter 18 - 1
This is an outline that you will need to get from class.
Chapter 18 - 2
This is an outline that you will need to get from class.
1. Challenge –

Match each element on the left with the element on the right that has the most similar chemical properties.  Use the periodic table to help you.

Krypton (Kr)                 Sodium (na)
Phosphorus (P)             Neon (Ne)
Potassium (K)             Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)         Sulfur (S)
Silicon (Si)                 Nitrogen (N)
Oxygen (O)                 Carbon (C)

Question:  Why did you match the pairs you did?

2. Challenge –
Sample (see figure in the textbook - dots won't work when using the web page format)

Be              B              C              N              O          F
Draw electron dot diagrams for the period 3 elements.

Mg          Al              Si              P                  S              Cl

Question:What is the trend in number of valence electrons from sodium to argon?

1. What is the basis for arranging the elements in the periodic table?

2. Why are the elements in each group in the periodic table considered a family?

3. What properties are shared by the noble gases?

Chapter 18 - 3 – Ionic Bonds

   ion -
   ionic bond-
   polyatomic ion

1. Electron Transfer –

    A.  Atoms with fewer than 4 valence electrons can trnasfer them to other atoms.
    B.  Why do this?
        1.  to become more stable
        2.  fills the outer most energy level
    C.  Loses electrons
        1.  it becomes a positive ion
    D.  Gains electrons
        1.  it becomes a negative ion
2.  Forming ionic bonds
    A.  Attraction between two oppositely charged ions
    B.  When two ions come together the opposite charges cancel out..
    C.  Forms electrically neutral compounds.
    D.  Fig. 8, og. 580 (common ions and their charges)
3.  Naming Ionic compounds
    A.  positive ions comes first, followed by the negative
    B.  If the name of the negative ion is an element the end of its name changes to -ide.
        example: chlorine changes to chloride
    C.  If its a polyatomic ion then it remains unchagned

Chapter 18 - 4 – Covalent Bonds
This is an outline that you will need to get from class.

1. Electron Sharing –

    B. Called a ___________________ ___________________.

    C. Example:

    F    +    F then F     F

    D. In a covalent bond, both atoms ____________________ the two shared electrons at the same time.

2. How many bonds?

    H           C           N           O

    A. Hydrogen can form __________ bonds.

    B. Carbon can form _________ bonds.

    C. Nitrogen can form __________ bonds.

    D. Oxygen can form ___________ bonds.

    E. Why?

3. Form the following compounds using the electron dot diagram.
    A. Water (H20)

    B. Ammonia (NH3)

    C. Oxygen (O2)

    D. Carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E. Nitrogen (N2)

Writing Chemical Formulas
This is an outline that you will need to get from class.

1. Just as you learned to put letters together to make words, chemical symbols can be put together to make chemical “________________”.
2. Combinations of chemical ________________ are called chemical ___________________.

3. Chemical formulas represent

    A. Example – Ammonia; compound made up of ____________________ and _____________________.
    B. Chemical formula is written ______________.
    C. A molecule of ammonia contains:

    D. Example – Rubbing alcohol; formula is ______________________.
    E. What elements make up this compound?

    F. What elements make up silver nitrate? __________________

    G. A formula may represent an element not a compound.
        1. example – oxygen (O)
        2. in nature oxygen occurs as a molecule with 2 atoms and written as ________
        3. what other gases might exist in nature with 2 atoms instead of 1?
4. Writing a chemical formula –
    A. Use the ____________________ of each element in the compound.
    B. Use ________________________ placed in the lower right of the symbols.
        1. Subscripts


    C. Carbon dioxide- made up of the elements __________________ and _____________________.
        1. Formula is written __________.
        2. What are the numbers of atoms of each element?

    D. What are the advantages of using chemical formulas?


Chemical Bonding
This is an outline that you will need to get from class.

1. The combining of atoms of elements to form new substances is called _____________________ ______________________.
2. There are only _______ elements on the periodic table.  How can just _____ elements form so many different substances?

    B. Examples –

3. Chemical bonds are formed in _________________ ways.


4. How many bonds?
    A. ______________________ electrons are doing the bonding.
    B. Examples – Hydrogen
        1. how many unpaired electrons are in the outermost shell - ______
        2. how many bonds can it make?  __________
    C. Example – Nitrogen
        1. how many unpaired electrons are in the outermost shell? ________
        2. how many bonds can it make?  _______
    D. Combine nitrogen and hydrogen (______________________)

5. 3 different types of bonds –
    A. Single bond
        1. represented by a _____________ line
        2. one bond
        3. ________ elements can form a single bond
    B. Double bond
        1. represented by __________ parallel lines
        2. two bonds
        3. ___________ elements can from double bonds
    C. Triple bond
        1. represented by _____________ parallel lines
        2. three bonds
        3. ________ elements can form double bonds
    D. Redraw ammonia

Atoms and Molecules
This is an outline that you will need to get from class.

1. Orientation or bond angles -
    A. Elements form _________________ angles to each other

    C.  Example – H2O

2. Carbon –
    A. Likes to form ___________________ or  _____________________.
    B. Example – CH3CH2CH2CH3

    C. Carbon can form ___________________, ______________________, and ___________________ bonds.

3. Formulas –
    A. If the formula is written as C2H5OH then that is the order you write the formula.  It is giving you a hint.
    B. It could have been written ____________________.

4. Alcohol –
    A. _____________ is always an alcohol.
    B. Anytime you see an _________ attached to a molecule you will know it is some sort of alcohol.

5. -COOH
    A. COOH is always drawn as