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Chapter 15 – 1
Solids, Liquids, and Gases

1. How are the 3 states of matter defined?
    A. whether or not they hold their volume and shape
2. Solids –
    A. Particles are packed closely together in a fixed position
    B. It has a definite shape and volume
    C. Can the particles move?
        1. yes, by vibrating in place
    D. Types of solids
        1. crystalline solids
            a. arranged in regular, repeating patterns
            b. ie. Salt, sugar, sand, snow
        2. amorphous solids
            a. not arranged in regular patterns
            b. ie. plastics, rubber, glass
3. Liquids –
    A. Has no shape of its own
    B. It takes on the shape of the container
    C. Volume does not increase or decrease
    D. Can the particles move?
        1. yes, they move around freely
        2. but will have a definite volume
    E. Viscosity
        1. fluid
            a. substance that flows
        2. resistance to flowing is viscosity
        3. some liquids flow easier than others
        4. Gases –
    F. Can change volume very easy
    G. Shape and volume of a gas are the shape and volume the container
    H. When released from the container gas escapes

Chapter 15 - 2
Behavior of Gases

1. Measuring gases –
    A. Use volume, temperature, and pressure
    B. Read pg. 474 & 475
2. Boyle’s Law –
    A. Relationship between pressure and volume
        1. Pressure increases, volume decrease
        2. Pressure decreases, volume increases
    B. Fig. 12, pg. 476
    C. Relationship between pressure and temperature
        1. temp. increases, pressure increases
        2. temp. decreases, pressure decreases
        3. fig. 1, pg. 477
3. Charles’s Law –
    A. Relationship between temperature and volume
        1. temp. increases, volume increases
        2. temp. decreases, volume decreases
    B. fig. 14, pg. 478

1. Build a model of either Boyle’s law or Charles’s Law.
2. Use whatever materials you want.
3. You must build it.
4. You may not buy the model, just the pieces to build.


Chapter 15 - 3
Graphing Gas Behavior
Discover: pg. 480
What does a graph of pressure and temperature show?

1. Charles’s Law –
    A. Fig. 19, pg. 482
    B. Variables are directly proportional
        1. volume of a gas is directly proportional to temperature under constant pressure
2. Boyle’s Law –
    A. fig. 21, pg. 483
    B. Measurements vary inversely
        1. pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature
        2. ie. Pressure increase, volume decreases

15- 4
Physical and Chemical Changes

1. Physical –
    A. Alters the form, but not the identity
2. Chemical –
    A. Changes into a different substance with different properties
3. Changes between liquid & solid -
    A. Melting
        1. solid changes to a  liquid
        2. occurs at the melting point of that substance
    B. Freezing
        1. liquid changes to a solid
4. Changes between liquid and gas -
    A. Vaporization
        1. liquid changes to a vapor
        2. becomes a gas
        3. 2 main types
            a. evaporation
                i. vaporization taking place on the surface of the liquid
                ii. ie. Puddle drying up, beads of sweat on your skin
            b. boiling
                i. vaporization taking place inside the liquid
                ii. boiling point
      B. Condensation
        1. opposite of vaporization
        2. gases lose enough thermal energy to become a liquid
        3. ie. Clouds, breath on a mirror
5. Changes between solid and gas –
    A. Sublimation
        1. solid particles gain enough energy to become a gas
        2. they do not pass through the liquid phase
        3. ie. Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide)
6. Exploring Changes of State (pg. 491)

Review – Chapter 14 & 15
1. What is a characteristic property?

2. Define physical and chemical change.

3. What is the definition of density?  What is the formula?  If a liquid has a mass of 10 grams and a volume of 8.3 cm3 what is its density?  Show your work.

4. What is a “best mixed” mixture?

5. Define solid, liquid and a gas.

6. Boyle’s Law states –

7. Charles’s Law states –

8. What is viscosity?  Name a fluid with a high viscosity and one with a low viscosity.

9. What is a chemical bond?

10. What are atoms?

11. What is the term used to describe a gas to a  liquid?  Liquid to a  gas?

12. Know a pure substance from a mixture.  Know all 3 states of matter.  Know your graphs of directly/indirectly proportional.

13. Know the difference between melting, evaporation, condensation, and sublimation.

14. Make sure you can calculate density.  You will need a calculator for the test!!!!!