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Describing Matter (Section 14-1)

1. Matter = stuff
    Examples: books, shells, rocks, fruit, etc.
2. Properties of matter –
    A. Hardness, texture, shape, temperature, flammability, size, and color
    B. Can matter change properties?
3. States of matter-
    A. solids, liquids, gases
    B. fig. 1 (pg. 429)
4. Boiling point –
    A. temperature when a liquid boils
    B. different liquids  boil at different temperatures
5. Melting point –
    A. temperature when a solid melts
    B. various melting points
6. Changes in matter –
    A. Physical changes
        1. alter the form, but not the identity
        2. ie. Water
    B. Chemical changes
        1. one or more substances combined form new substances
        2. ie. Sugar into caramel
7. Types of matter –
    A. Mixtures
        1. two or more substances mixed together
        2. ie. Sea water, sugar water (juice)
    B. Pure substances
        1. made only of one kind of matter
        2. ie. Sugar, iron, aluminum, copper
    C. Elements
        1. cannot be broken down into other substances
    D. Compounds
        1. elements combine to form compounds
        2. ie. Water – H2O; carbon dioxide - CO2

Measuring Matter  (Section 14-2)

1. Mass –
    A. Measurement of how much matter it contains
    B. Units of mass – gram, kilogram
2. Volume –
    A. Amount of space matter occupies
    B. fig. 8 (pg. 447)
    C. Rectangular objects
        1. V = L x W x H
        2. multiply units
    D. 1 mL = 1 cm3
3. Density –
    A. How much mass is contained in a given volume
    B. D=M/V
        1. D = density
        2. M = mass
        3. V = volume
    C. Units are g/cm3
    D. fig 10 (page 450)

Particles of Matter (Section 14 - 3)
1. Atoms
    A. Smallest possible piece
    B. ie.  Tearing a piece of paper
         Can you tear it into the smallest piece?
    C. Smallest particles of an element
        1. elements – substance in which all atoms are alike and cannot be broken
2. Democritus
    A. Greek philosopher – 440 B.C.
    B. Suggested the idea of atomos (atom)
         1. atomos = uncuttable
         2. term is still used today
3. Dalton
    A. Atomic Theory
        1. Atoms can’t be broken into smaller pieces.
        2. In any element, all the atoms are exactly alike.
        3. In any two or more elements can combine to form compounds.
        4. Atoms of each element have a unique mass.
        5. The masses of the elements in a compound are always in a constant ratio.
    B. Some exceptions to the statements, but basically hold true today
4. Molecule
    A. Group of atoms joined together and act as a single unit
5. Chemical bond
    A. Force which holds two atoms together
    B. fig. 14 pg. 456
    C. Read - How Small is Small? Pg. 456
6. Scanning tunneling microscope
    A. Able to see atoms